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 1.         Australian Cancer Network & National Breast Cancer Centre. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of women with epithelial ovarian cancer. Camperdown: National Breast Cancer Centre 2004.

 2.         Risch HA, McLaughlin JR, Cole DE, Rosen B, Bradley L, Fan I. Population BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation frequencies and cancer penetrances: a kin-cohort study in Ontario, Canada. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98(23):1694-706.

 3.         Rebbeck TR, Kauff ND, Domchek SM. Meta-analysis of risk reduction estimates associated with risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009 Jan 21;101(2):80-7.

 4.         Antoniou AC, Pharoah PDP, Narod SA, et al. Average risks of breast and ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations detected in case series unselected for family history: a combined analysis of 22 studies. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;72:1117-30.

 5.         National Breast and Ovarian Cancer Centre. Advice about familial aspects of breast cancer and epithelial ovarian cancer. A guide for health professionals. Surry Hills: National Breast and Ovarian Cancer Centre 2010.

 6.         Crum CP, Drapkin R, Kindelberger DW, Medeiros F, Miron A, Lee Y. Lessons from BRCA: The tubal fimbria emerges as an origin for pelvic serous cancer. Clin Med Res. 2007;5(1):35-44.

 7.         National Breast and Ovarian Cancer Centre. Surveillance of women at high or potentially high risk of ovarian cancer - NBOCC Position Statement 2009.

 8.         Schorge JO, Modesitt SC, Coleman DE, Cohn DE, Kauff ND, Duska LR, et al. SGO White Paper on ovarian cancer: etiology, screening and surveillance. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;119(1):7-17.

 9.         Berek JS, Chalas E, Edelson M, Moore D, Burke W, Cliby W, et al. Prophylactic and risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: Recommendations based on risk of ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116(3):733-43.

 10.        National Health and Medical Research Council. NHMRC additional levels of evidence and grades for recommendations for developers of guidelines. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; 2009.

 11.        National Breast Cancer Centre and National Cancer Control Initiative. Clinical practice guidelines for the psychosocial care of adults with cancer. Camperdown: National Breast Cancer Centre 2003.

 12.        Domchek S, Friebel T, Singer CF, Evans DG, Lynch H, Isaacs C, et al. Association of risk-reducing surgery in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers with cancer risk and mortality. JAMA. 2010;304(9):967-75.

 13.        Schmeler KM, Lynch HT, Chen LM, Munsell MF, Soliman PT, Clark MB, et al. Prophylactic surgery to reduce the risk of gynecologic cancers in the Lynch syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jan 19;354(3):261-9.

 14.        Rebbeck TR, Friebel T, Wagner T, Lynch HT, Garber JE, Daly MB, et al. Effect of short-term hormone replacement therapy on breast cancer risk reduction after bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: The PROSE Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(31):7804-10.

 15.        Rabban JT, Barnes M, Chen LM, Powell CB, Crawford B, Zaloudek CJ. Ovarian pathology in risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomies from women with BRCA mutations, emphasizing the differential diagnosis of occult primary and metastatic carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009 Aug;33(8):1125-36.

 16.        Hirst JE, Gard GB, McIllroy K, Nevell D, Field M. High rates of occult fallopian tube cancer diagnosed at prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2009 Jul;19(5):826-9.

 17.        Callahan MJ, Crum CP, Medeiros F, Kindelberger DW, Elvin JA, Garber JE, et al. Primary fallopian tube malignancies in BRCA-positive women undergoing surgery for ovarian cancer risk reduction. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Sep 1;25(25):3985-90.

 18.        Finch A, Beiner M, Lubinski J, Lynch HT, Moller P, Rosen B, et al. Salpingo-oophorectomy and the risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutation. JAMA. 2006 Jul 12;296(2):185-92.

 19.        Finch A, Shaw P, Rosen B, Murphy J, Narod SA, Colgan TJ. Clinical and pathologic findings of prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomies in 159 BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Gynecol Oncol. 2006 Jan;100(1):58-64.

 20.        Olivier RI, van Beurden M, Lubsen MA, Rookus MA, Mooij TM, van de Vijver MJ, et al. Clinical outcome of prophylactic oophorectomy in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers and events during follow-up. Br J Cancer. 2004 Apr 19;90(8):1492-7.

 21.        Domchek SM, Friebel TM, Neuhausen SL, Wagner T, Evans G, Isaacs C, et al. Mortality after bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol. 2006 Mar;7(3):223-9.

 22.        Kauff ND, Domchek SM, Friebel TM, Robson ME, Lee J, Garber JE, et al. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for the prevention of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast and gynecologic cancer: a multicenter, prospective study. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Mar 10;26(8):1331-7.

 23.        Fang CY, Cherry C, Devarajan K, Li T, Malick J, Daly MB. A prospective study of quality of life among women undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy versus gynecologic screening for ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2009 Mar;112(3):594-600.

 24.        Benshushan A, Rojansky N, Chaviv M, Arbel-Alon S, Benmeir A, Imbar T, et al. Climacteric symptoms in women undergoing risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Climacteric. 2009 Oct;12(5):404-9.

 25.        De Leeuw JR, van Vliet MJ, Ausems MG. Predictors of choosing life-long screening or prophylactic surgery in women at high and moderate risk for breast and ovarian cancer. Fam Cancer. 2008;7(4):347-59.

 26.        Madalinska JB, Hollenstein J, Bleiker E, van Beurden M, Valdimarsdottir HB, Massuger LF, et al. Quality-of-life effects of prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy versus gynecologic screening among women at increased risk of hereditary ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Oct 1;23(28):6890-8.

 27.        Kiely BE, Friedlander M, Milne RL, Stanhope L, Russell P, Jenkins MA, et al. Adequacy of risk-reducing gynaecologic surgery in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers and other women at high risk of pelvic serous cancer. Fam Cancer. 2011 22nd March 2011.

 28.        Seidman JD, Yemelyanova A, Zaino RJ, Kurman RJ. The fallopian tube-peritoneal junction: A potential site of carcinogenesis. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2010;30(1):4-11.

 29.        Anderson K, Jacobson JS, Heitjan DF, Zivin JG, Hershman D, Neugut AI, et al. Cost-effectiveness of preventive strategies for women with a BRCA1 or a BRCA2 mutation. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Mar 21;144(6):397-406.

 30.        Antoniou AC, Rookus M, Andrieu N, Brohet R, Chang-Claude J, Peock S, et al. Reproductive and hormonal factors, and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study. Cancer Epidem Biomar. 2009 Feb;18(2):601-10.

 31.        McLaughlin JR, Risch HA, Lubinski J, Moller P, Ghadirian P, Lynch H, et al. Reproductive risk factors for ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations: a case-control study. Lancet Oncol. 2007 Jan;8(1):26-34.

 32.        Whittemore AS, Balise RR, Pharoah PDP, DiCioccio RA, Oakley-Girvan I, Ramus SJ, et al. Oral contraceptive use and ovarian cancer risk among carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Brit J Cancer. 2004;91(11):1911-5.

 33.        Narod SA, DubeĆ‚' M, Klijn J, et al. Oral Contraceptives and the Risk of Breast Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94(23):1773-9.

 34.        Rutter JL, Wacholder S, Chetrit A, Lubin F, Menczer J, Ebbers S, et al. Gynecologic surgeries and risk of ovarian cancer in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 Ashkenazi founder mutations: an Israeli population-based case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003 Jul 16;95(14):1072-8.

 35.        Braithwaite D, Emery J, Walter F, Prevost AT, Sutton S. Psychological impact of genetic counseling for familial cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fam Cancer. 2006;5:61-75.

 36.        Tiller K, Meiser B, Gaff C, Kirk J, Dudding T, Phillips KA, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a decision aid for women at increased risk of ovarian cancer. Med Decis Making. 2006 Jul-Aug;26(4):360-72.

 37.        Armstrong K, Weber B, Ubel PA, Peters N, Holmes J, Schwartz JS. Individualized survival curves improve satisfaction with cancer risk management decisions in women with BRCA1/2 mutations. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Dec 20;23(36):9319-28.

 38.        van Roosmalen MS, Stalmeier PF, Verhoef LC, Hoekstra-Weebers JE, Oosterwijk JC, Hoogerbrugge N, et al. Randomized trial of a shared decision-making intervention consisting of trade-offs and individualized treatment information for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Aug 15;22(16):3293-301.

 39.        National Breast and Ovarian Cancer Centre. Management of women at high risk of ovarian cancer: a systematic review. Surry Hills, NSW: National Breast and Ovarian Cancer Centre 2010.

 40.        Kurian AW, Sigal BM, Plevritis SK. Survival analysis of cancer risk reduction strategies for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jan 10;28(2):222-31.

 41.        Armstrong K, Schwartz JS, Randall T, Rubin SC, Weber B. Hormone replacement therapy and life expectancy after prophylactic oophorectomy in women with BRCA1/2 mutations: a decision analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Mar 15;22(6):1045-54.

 42.        Schmeler KM, Lu KH. Gynecologic cancers associated with Lynch syndrome/HNPCC. Clin Transl Oncol. 2008 Jun;10(6):313-7.

 43.        Powell CB, Kenley E, Chen LM, Crawford B, McLennan J, Zaloudek C, et al. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA mutation carriers: role of serial sectioning in the detection of occult malignancy. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jan 1;23(1):127-32.

 44.        Domchek SM, Friebel TM, Garber JE, Isaacs C, Matloff E, Eeles R, et al. Occult ovarian cancers identified at risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in a prospective cohort of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Breast Cancer Res Tr. 2010 Feb 24.

 45.        Norum J, Hagen AI, Maehle L, Apold J, Burn J, Moller P. Prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (PBSO) with or without prophylactic bilateral mastectomy (PBM) or no intervention in BRCA1 mutation carriers: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Eur J Cancer. 2008 May;44(7):963-71.

 46.        Michelsen TM, Dorum A, Dahl AA. A controlled study of mental distress and somatic complaints after risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women at risk for hereditary breast ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2009 Apr;113(1):128-33.

 47.        Madalinska JB, van Beurden M, Bleiker EM, Valdimarsdottir HB, Hollenstein J, Massuger LF, et al. The impact of hormone replacement therapy on menopausal symptoms in younger high-risk women after prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Aug 1;24(22):3576-82.

 48.        Rocca WA, Grossadt BR, M. de Andrade M, Malkasian GD, Melton LJ 3rd. Survival patterns after oophorectomy in premenopausal women: a population-based cohort study. Lancet Oncol. 2006;7:821-8.

 49.        Rocca WA, Bower JH, Maraganore DM, Ahlskog JE, al E. Increased risk of parkinsonism in women who underwent oophorectomy before menopause. Neurology. 2008;70:200-9.

 50.        Rocca WA, Bower JH, Maraganore DM, Ahlskog JE, Grossardt BR, et al. Increased risk of cognitive impairment or dementia in women who underwent oophorectomy before menopause. Neurology 2007;69(11):1074-83.

 51.        Michelsen TM, Dahl AA, Trope C, Dorum A. Sexual activity and functioning in women who underwent salpingo-oophorectomy to prevent hereditary breast ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(7S):5097.

 52.        Evans DG, Clayton R, Donnai P, Shenton A, Lalloo F. Risk-reducing surgery for ovarian cancer: outcomes in 300 surgeries suggest a low peritoneal primary risk. Eur J Hum Genet. 2009 Nov;17(11):1381-5.

 53.        Hallowell N, Mackay J, Richards M, Gore M, Jacobs I. High-risk premenopausal women's experiences of undergoing prophylactic oophorectomy: a descriptive study. Genet Test. 2004 Summer;8(2):148-56.

 54.        Olivier RI, Lubsen-Brandsma LA, van Boven H, van Beurden M. Additional salpingectomy after previous prophylactic oophorectomy in high-risk women: sense or nonsense? Gynecol Oncol. 2005 Feb;96(2):439-43.

 55.        Rabban JT, Krasik E, Chen LM, Powell CB, Crawford B, Zaloudek CJ. Multistep level sections to detect occult fallopian tube carcinoma in risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomies from women with BRCA mutations: implications for defining an optimal specimen dissection protocol. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009 Dec;33(12):1878-85.

 56.        Howard AF, Balneaves LG, Bottorff JL. Women's decision making about risk-reducing strategies in the context of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: a systematic review. J Genet Couns. 2009 Dec;18(6):578-97.

 57.        Edwards A, Gray J, Clarke A, Dundon J, Elwyn G, Gaff C, et al. Interventions to improve risk communication in clinical genetics: Systematic review. Patient Educ Couns. 2008;71(1):4-25.

 58.        Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer. Ovarian cancer and oral contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of data from 45 epidemiological studies including 23,257 women with ovarian cancer and 87,303 controls. The Lancet. 2008;371(9609):303 -14.

 59.        Chrisandra L. Shufelt, C. Noel Bairey Merz. Contraceptive Hormone Use and Cardiovascular Disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53(3).

 60.        Institute for Women's Health UK. UK Familial Ovarian Cancer Screening Study (UK FOCSS).   [April 2010 ]; Available from:

 61.        National Cancer Institute (NCI). Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 199.   [April 2010]; Available from:

 62. Fenretinide in Preventing Ovarian Cancer in Participants Who Are at High Risk for Developing Ovarian Cancer and Planning to Undergo Surgery to Remove the Ovaries (NCT00098800) Available from:

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