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Recommendations for use of Bisphosphonates

Glossary

Adjuvant treatment given in addition to primary (initial) treatment. For breast cancer, the primary treatment is surgery and adjuvant treatments include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapies and targeted therapies

Anaemia a condition in which there are fewer red blood cells in the blood than normal

Aromatase inhibitors types of hormonal therapy used in the treatment of breast cancer

Arthralgia pain in the joints

Atypical fractures stress fractures in compact bone that occur at sites with high tensional stress

Bone metastasis cancer that has spread to the bone

Bone mineral density (BMD) defined using the T score (how dense the bone is compared to the expected bone density of a young healthy adult) and measured from various places including lumbar spine, hip and femoral neck. A normal bone mineral density is T score greater than -1.0

Contralateral breast the other breast from the initial site of breast cancer

Disease-free survival time from randomisation to the first occurrence of one or more of the following: a local or regional recurrence, cancer in the contralateral breast, distant metastasis, second primary carcinoma, or death from any cause

Endocrine therapy a type of hormonal treatment that acts to inhibit the grown of breast cancer cells that have hormone receptors (e.g. ovarian suppression, aromatase inhibitors and selective oestrogen receptor modulators)

ER+ (oestrogen receptor-positive) breast cancer a type of breast cancer in which the growth of cancer cells is affected by the female hormone oestrogen

Hypocalcaemia abnormally low calcium levels

Hypophosphataemia abnormally low phosphate levels

Lymph nodes glands in the armpit and other parts of the body that protect the body from infection. Lymph nodes may be fixed or moveable

Metastasis the secondary or distant spread of cancer, away from its initial site in the body

Myalgia muscle pain

Neoadjuvant administration of therapy before the main treatment (e.g. prior to surgery)

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) death of a section of the jaw

Osteopenia lower bone mineral density than normal but not low enough to be classified as osteoporosis. Osteopenia may be a precursor to osteoporosis. Defined in trials as bone mineral density T score greater than -2.5 and less than -1.0

Osteoporosis systemic skeletal disease that causes the bones to become thin, weak and fragile, and leads to increased risk of fracture. Defined in trials as bone mineral density T score of -2.5 or lower

Ovarian suppression therapy to stop functioning of the ovaries and prevent them from producing oestrogen

Phlebitis inflammation of a vein

PR+ (progesterone receptor-positive) breast cancer a type of breast cancer in which the growth of cancer cells is affected by the female hormone progesterone

Recurrence-free survival time from randomisation to the first occurrence of local or regional recurrence

Systemic therapy drugs such as chemotherapy or hormonal therapy that treat the whole body to destroy cancer cells Targeted therapy drugs that stop the growth of particular types of cancer cells

Visceral metastasis cancer that has spread to other internal organ(s)

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